days of imprisonment, Ralph Abernathy and I accepted bond to come
out of jail for two purposes. It was necessary for me to regain
communication with the SCLC officers and our lawyers in order to
map the strategy for the contempt cases that would be coming up
shortly in the circuit court. Also, I had decided to put into operation
a new phase of our campaign, which I felt would speed victory.
I called my staff together and repeated a conviction I had been voicing ever since the campaign began. If our drive was to be successful, we must involve the students of the community. Even though we realized that involving teenagers and high school students would bring down upon us a heavy fire of criticism, we felt that we needed this dramatic new dimension. Our people were demonstrating daily and going to jail in numbers, but we were still beating our heads against the brick wall of the city officials' stubborn resolve to maintain the status quo. Our fight, if won, would benefit people of all ages. But most of all we were inspired with the desire to give to our young a true sense of their own stake in freedom and justice. We believed they would have the courage to respond to our call.
"Children understood the stakes"
SCLC staff members James Bevel, Andy Young, Bernard Lee, and Dorothy Cotton began visiting colleges and high schools in the area. They invited students to attend after-school meetings at churches. The word spread fast, and the response from Birmingham's youngsters exceeded our fondest dreams. By the fifties and by the hundreds, these youngsters attended mass meetings and training sessions. They listened eagerly as we talked of bringing freedom to Birmingham, not in some distant time, but right now. We taught them the philosophy of nonviolence. We challenged them to bring their exuberance, their youthful creativity, into the disciplined dedication of the movement. We found them eager to belong, hungry for participation in a significant social effort. Looking back, it is clear that the introduction of Birmingham's children into the campaign was one of the wisest moves we made. It brought a new impact to the crusade, and the impetus that we needed to win the struggle.
Immediately, of course,
a cry of protest went up. Although by the end of April the attitude
of the national press had changed considerably, so that the major
media were according us sympathetic coverage, yet many deplored
our "using" our children in this fashion. Where had these writers
been, we wondered, during the centuries when our segregated social
system had been misusing and abusing Negro children? Where had they
been with their protective words when, down through the years, Negro
infants were born into ghettos, taking their first breath of life
in a social atmosphere where the fresh air of freedom was crowded
out by the stench of discrimination?
The children themselves
had the answer to the misguided sympathies of the press. One of
the most ringing replies came from a child of no more than eight
who walked with her mother one day in a demonstration. An amused
policeman leaned down to her and said with mock gruffness: "What
do you want?"
The child looked into his
eyes, unafraid, and gave her answer.
"Freedom," she said.
She could not even pronounce the word, but no Gabriel trumpet could have sounded a truer note.
Even children too young
to march requested and earned a place in our ranks. Once when we
sent out a call for volunteers, six tiny youngsters responded. Andy
Young told them that they were not old enough to go to jail but
that they could go to the library. "You won't get arrested there,"
he said, "but you might learn something." So these six small children
marched off to the building in the white district, where, up to
two weeks before, they would have been turned away at the door.
Shyly but doggedly, they went to the children's room and sat down,
and soon they were lost in their books. In their own way, they had
struck a blow for freedom.
The children understood
the stakes they were fighting for. I think of one teenage boy whose
father's devotion to the movement turned sour when he learned that
his son had pledged himself to become a demonstrator. The father
forbade his son to participate.
"Daddy," the boy said,
"I don't want to disobey you, but I have made my pledge. If you
try to keep me home, I will sneak off. If you think I deserve to
be punished for that, I'll just have to take the punishment. For,
you see, I'm not doing this only because I want to be free. I'm
doing it also because I want freedom for you and Mama, and I want
it to come before you die."
That father thought again,
and gave his son his blessing.
The movement was blessed
by the fire and excitement brought to it by young people such as
these. And when Birmingham youngsters joined the march in numbers,
a historic thing happened. For the first time in the civil rights
movement, we were able to put into effect the Gandhian principle:
"Fill up the jails."
Jim Bevel had the inspiration
of setting a "D" Day, when the students
would go to jail in historic numbers. When that day arrived, young
people converged on the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in wave
after wave. Altogether on "D" Day, May 2, more than a thousand young
people demonstrated and went to jail. Atone school, the principal
gave orders to lock the gates to keep the students in. The youngsters
climbed over the gates and ran toward freedom. The assistant superintendent
of schools threatened them with expulsion, and still they came,
day after day. At the height of the campaign, by conservative estimates,
there were 2,500 demonstrators in jail at one time, a large proportion
of them young people.
Serious as they were about what they were doing, these teenagers had that marvelous humor that arms the unarmed in the face of danger. Under their leaders, they took delight in confusing the police. A small decoy group would gather at one exit of the church, bringing policemen streaming in cars and on motorcycles. Before the officers knew what was happening, other groups, by the scores, would pour out of other exits and move, two by two, toward our goal in the downtown section.
Many arrived at their destination before the police could confront and arrest them. They sang as they marched and as they were loaded into the paddy wagons. The police ran out of paddy wagons and had to press sheriff's cars and school buses into service.
Watching those youngsters in Birmingham, I could not help remembering an episode in Montgomery during the bus boycott. Someone had asked an elderly women why she was involved in our struggle.
"I'm doing it for my children and for my grandchildren," she had replied.
Seven years later, the children and grandchildren were doing it for themselves.
With the jails filling up and the scorching glare of national disapproval focused on Birmingham, Bull Connor abandoned his posture of nonviolence. The result was an ugliness too well known to Americans and to people all over the world. The newspapers of May 4 carried pictures of prostrate women, and policemen bending over them with raised clubs; of children marching up to the bared fangs of police dogs; of the terrible force of pressure hoses sweeping bodies into the streets.
AT SIXTEENTH STREET BAPTIST CHURCH
I can't follow the old eye-for-an-eye philosophy is that it
ends up leaving everybody blind. Somebody must have sense
and somebody must have religion. I remember some years ago,
my brother and I were driving from Atlanta to Chattanooga,
Tennessee. And for some reason the drivers that night were
very discourteous or they were forgetting to dim their lights
And finally A.D. looked over at me and he said, "I'm tired
of this now, and the next car that comes by here and refuses
to dim the lights, I'm going to refuse to dim mine." I said,
"Wait a minute, don't do that. Somebody has to have some sense
on this highway and if somebody doesn't have sense enough
to dim the lights, we'll all end up destroyed on this highway."
And I'm saying the same thing for us here in Birmingham. We
are moving up a mighty highway toward the city of Freedom.
There will be meandering points. There will be curves and
difficult moments, and we will be tempted to retaliate with
the same kind of force that the opposition will use. But I'm
going to say to you, "Wait a minute, Birmingham. Somebody's
got to have some sense in Birmingham."
May 3, 1963
"The pride and the power
This was the time of our
greatest stress, and the courage and conviction of those students
and adults made it our finest hour. We did not fight back, but we
did not turn back. We did not give way to bitterness. Some few spectators,
who had not been trained in the discipline of nonviolence, reacted
to the brutality of the policemen by throwing rocks and bottles.
But the demonstrators remained nonviolent. In the face of this resolution
and bravery, the moral conscience of the nation was deeply stirred
and, all over the country, our fight became the fight of decent
Americans of all races and creeds.
The moral indignation which was spreading throughout the land, the sympathy created by the children, the growing involvement of the Negro community all these factors were mingling to create a certain atmosphere inside our movement. It was a pride in progress and a conviction that we were going to win. It was a mounting optimism which gave us the feeling that the implacable barriers that confronted us were doomed and already beginning to crumble. We were advised, in the utmost confidence, that the white business structure was weakening under the adverse publicity, the pressure of our boycott, and a parallel falling-off of white buying.
AT MASS MEETING
There are those who write history. There are those who make history. There are those who experience history. I don't know how many historians we have in Birmingham tonight. I don't know how many of you would be able to write a history book, but you are certainly making history and you are experiencing history, And you will make it possible for the historians of the future to write a marvelous chapter. Never in the history of this nation have so many people been arrested for the cause of freedom and human dignity.
Strangely enough, the masses of white
citizens in Birmingham were not fighting us. This was one of the
most amazing aspects of the Birmingham crusade. Only a year or so
ago, had we begun such a campaign, Bull Connor would have had his
job done for him by murderously angry white citizens. Now, however,
the majority were maintaining a strictly hands-off policy. I do
not mean to insinuate that they were in sympathy with our cause
or that they boycotted stores because we did. I simply suggest that
it was powerfully symbolic of shifting attitudes in the South that
the majority of the white citizens of Birmingham remained neutral
through our campaign. This neutrality added force to our feeling
that we were on the road to victory.
On one dramatic occasion
even Bull Connor's men were shaken. It was a Sunday afternoon, when
several hundred Birmingham Negroes had determined to hold a prayer
meeting near the city jail. They gathered at the New Pilgrim Baptist
Church and began an orderly march. Bull Connor ordered out the police
dogs and fire hoses. When the marchers approached the border between
the white and Negro areas, Connor ordered them to turn back. The
Reverend Charles Billups, who was leading the march, politely refused.
Enraged Bull Connor whirled on his men and shouted: "Dammit. Turn
on the hoses."
What happened in the next thirty seconds was one of the most fantastic events of the Birmingham story. Bull Connor's men stood facing the marchers. The marchers, many of them on their knees, ready to pit nothing but the power of their bodies and souls against Connor's police dogs, clubs, and fire hoses, stared back, unafraid and unmoving. Slowly the Negroes stood up and began to advance. Connor's men, as though hypnotized, fell back, their hoses sagging uselessly in their hands while several hundred Negroes marched past them, without further interference, and held their prayer meeting as planned. I felt there, for the first time, the pride and the power of nonviolence.
"The beginning of the end"
Even though pressure on Birmingham's business community was intense, there were stubborn men in its midst who seemed to feel they would rather see their own enterprises fail than sit across the table and negotiate with our leadership. However, when national pressure began to pile up on the White House, climaxing with the infamous day of May 3, the administration was forced to act. On May 4, the attorney general dispatched Burke Marshall, his chief civil rights assistant, and Joseph F. Dolan, assistant deputy attorney. general, to seek a truce in the tense racial situation. Though Marshall, had no ultimate power to impose a solution, he had full authority, to represent the President in the negotiations. It was one of the first times the federal government had taken so active a role in such circumstances.
AT BIRMINGHAM MASS MEETING
Don't worry about your children, they're gonna be all right. Don't hold them back if they want to go to jail. For they are doing a job not only for themselves but for all of America and for all mankind. Somewhere we read, "A little child shall lead them." Remember there was another little child just twelve years old and he got involved in a discussion back in Jerusalem . . . . He said, "I must be about my father's business." These young people are about their fathers' business. And they are carving a tunnel of hope through the great mountain of despair . . . . We are going to see that they are treated right, don't worry about that . . . and go on and not only fill up the jails around here, but just fill up the jails all over the state of Alabama if necessary.
May 5, 1963
must confess that although I appreciated the fact that the administration
had finally made a decisive move, I had some initial, misgivings
concerning Marshall's intentions. I was afraid that he had come
to urge a "cooling off" period - to ask us to declare a one-sided
truce as a condition to negotiations. To his credit, Marshall' did
not adopt such a position. Rather, he did an invaluable job oft:.
opening channels of communication between our leadership and that,
top people in the economic power structure. Said one staunch defender
of segregation, after conferring with Marshall: "There is a man
who listens. I had to listen back, and I guess I grew up a little.";
With Burke Marshall as catalyst, we
began to hold secret meetings with the Senior Citizens Committee.
At these sessions, unpromising as they
were at the outset, we laid the groundwork for the agreement that
would eventually accord us all of our major demands.
Meanwhile, however, for several days violence swept through the streets of Birmingham. An armored car was added to Bull Connor's strange armament. And some Negroes, not trained in our nonviolent methods, again responded with bricks and bottles. On one of these days, when the pressure in Connor's hoses was so high that it peeled the bark off the trees, Fred Shuttlesworth was hurled by a blast of water against the side of a building. Suffering injuries in his'. chest, he was carried away in an ambulance. Connor, when told, responded in characteristic fashion. "I wish he'd been carried away- "in a hearse," he said. Fortunately, Shuttlesworth was resilient and though still in pain he was back at the conference table the next day.
the very destructiveness brought on by their own acts, the city
police appealed for state troopers to be brought into the area.
Many of the white leaders now realized that something had to be
done. Yet there were those among them who were still adamant. But
one other incident was to occur that would transform recalcitrance
into good faith. On Tuesday, May 7, the Senior Citizen; Committee
had assembled in a downtown building to discuss our demands. In the
first hours of this meeting, they were so intransigent that Burke
Marshall despaired of a pact. The atmosphere was charged with tension,
and tempers were running high.
In this mood, these 125-odd
business leaders adjourned for lunch. As they walked out on the
street, an extraordinary sight met their eyes. On that day several
thousand Negroes had marched or the town. The jails were so full
that the police could only arrest a handful. There were Negroes
on the sidewalks, in the streets, standing, sitting in the aisles
of downtown stores. There were squad blocks of Negroes, a veritable
sea of black faces. They were committing no violence; they were
just present and singing. Downtown Birmingham echoed to the strains
of the freedom songs.
Astounded, these businessmen,
key figures in a great city, suddenly realized that the movement
could not be stopped. When they returned-from the lunch they were
unable to get-one of the men who had been in the most determined
opposition cleared his throw and said: "You know, I've been thinking
this thing through. We
ought to be able to work something out."
That admission marked the
beginning of the end. Late that afternoon, Burke Marshall informed
us that representatives from the business and industrial community
wanted to meet with the movement leaders immediately to work out
a settlement. After talking with these men for about three hours,
we became convinced that they were negotiating in good faith. On
the basis of this assurance we called a twenty-four-hour truce on
That day President Kennedy
devoted the entire opening statement of his press conference to
the Birmingham situation, emphasizing how vital it was that the
problems be squarely faced and resolved and expressing encouragement
that a dialogue now existed between the opposing sides. Even while
the president spoke, the truce was briefly threatened when Ralph
and I were suddenly clapped into jail on an old charge. Some of
my associates, feeling that they had again been betrayed, put on
their walking shoes and prepared to march. They were restrained,
however; we were swiftly bailed out, and negotiations were resumed.
After talking all night
Wednesday, and practically all day and night
Thursday, we reached an accord. On Friday, May 10, this agreement
was announced. It contained the following pledges:
1. The desegregation of lunch counters, rest rooms, fitting rooms, and drinking fountains, in planned stages within ninety days after signing.
2. The upgrading and hiring of Negroes on a nondiscriminatory basis throughout the industrial community of Birmingham, to include hiring of Negroes as clerks and salesmen within sixty days after signing of the agreement-and the immediate appointment of a committee of business, industrial, and professional leaders to implement an area-wide program for the acceleration of upgrading and employment of Negroes in job categories previously denied to them.
3. Official cooperation with the movement's legal representatives in working out the release of all jailed persons on bond or on their personal recognizance.
the Senior Citizens Committee or Chamber of Commerce, communications
between Negro and white to be publicly established within two weeks
after signing, in order to prevent the necessity of further demonstrations
I am happy to report to you this afternoon that we have commitments that the walls of segregation will crumble in Birmingham, and they will crumble soon. Now let nobody fool you. These walls are not crumbling just to be crumbling. They are breaking down and falling down, because in this community more people have been willing to stand up for freedom and to go to jail for that freedom than in any city at any time in the United States of America.
"Brutal answer to the pact"
Our troubles were not over.
The announcement that a peace pact had been signed in Birmingham
was flashed across the world by the hundred odd foreign correspondents
then covering the campaign on the crowded scene. It was headlined
in the nation's press and heralded on network television. Segregationist
forces within the city were consumed with fury. They vowed reprisals
against the white businessmen who had "betrayed" them by capitulating
to the cause of Negro equality.
On Saturday night, they
gave their brutal answer to the pact. 1 had not gotten more than
two hours' sleep a single night for the past four or five nights.
I was about to close my eyes for an evening of good sleep, only
to get a telephone call. Following a Ku Klux Klan meeting on the
outskirts of town, the home of my brother, the Reverend A. D. King,
was bombed. That same night a bomb was planted near the Gaston Motel,
a bomb placed so as to kill or seriously wound anyone who might
have been in Room 30-my room. Evidently the would-be assassins did
not know I was in Atlanta that night.
The bombing had been well
timed. The bars in the Negro district close at midnight and the
bombs exploded just as some of Birmingham's Saturday night drinkers
came out of the bars. Thousand of Negroes poured into the streets.
Wyatt Walker, my brother, an( others urged them to go home, but
they were not under the discipline of the movement and were in no
mood to listen to counsels of peace. Fighting began. Stones were
hurled at the police. Cars were wrecked and fires started. Whoever
planted the bombs had wanted
the Negroes to riot. They wanted
the pact upset.
Governor George Wallace's
state police and "conservation men sealed off the Negro area and
moved in with their bullies and pistol,, They beat numerous innocent
Negroes; among their acts of chivalry was the clubbing of the diminutive
Anne Walker, Wyatt's wife, a she was about to enter her husband's
quarters at the partially bombed-out Gaston Motel. They further
distinguished themselves by beating Wyatt when he was attempting
to drive back home after seeing his wife to the hospital.
I shall never forget the phone call my brother placed to me in
Atlanta that violent Saturday night. His home had just been destroyed.
Several people had been injured at the motel. I listened a he described
the erupting tumult and catastrophe in the streets of the city.
Then, in the background as he talked, I heard a swelling burst of
beautiful song. Feet planted in the rubble of debris, threatened
by criminal violence and hatred, followers of the movement were
singing "We Shall Overcome." I marveled that in a moment of such
tragedy the Negro could still express himself with hope with faith.
The following evening, a thoroughly aroused President told nation that the federal government would not allow extremists sabotage a fair and just pact. He ordered three thousand federal troops into position near Birmingham and made preparations federalize the Alabama National Guard. This firm action stopped troublemakers in their tracks.
Yet the segregationist diehards were to attempt still once more to destroy the peace. On May 20, the headlines announced that more than a thousand students who had participated in the demonstrations had been either suspended or expelled by the city's Board of Education. I was convinced that this was another attempt to drive the Negro community to an unwise and impulsive move. The plot might have worked; there were some people in our ranks who sincerely felt that, in retaliation, all the students of Birmingham should stay out of school and that demonstrations should be resumed.
I was out of the city at
the time, but I rushed back to Birmingham to persuade the leaders
that we must not fall into the trap. We decided to take the issue
into the courts and did so, through they auspices of the NAACP Legal
Defense and Educational Fund. On May 22, the local federal district
court judge upheld the Birmingham Board of Education. But that same
day, Judge Elbert P. Tuttle, of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals,
not only reversed the decision of the district judge but strongly
condemned the Board of Education for its action. In a time when
the nation was trying to solve the problem
v' of school dropouts, Judge Tuttle's
ruling indicated, it was an act of irresponsibility to drive
those youngsters from school in retaliation,'' for having engaged
in a legally permissible action to achieve their constitutional
rights. The night this ruling was handed down, we had a great mass
meeting. It was a jubilant moment, another victory in the titanic
The following day, in an
appropriate postscript, the Alabama Supreme Court ruled Eugene "Bull"
Connor and his fellow commissioners out of office, once and for
I could not close an account of events in Birmingham without noting the tremendous moral and financial support which poured in upon us from all over the world during the six weeks of demonstrations and in the weeks and months to follow. Although we were so preoccupied with the day-today crises of the campaign that we did not have time to send out a formal plea for funds, letters of encouragement and donations ranging from pennies taken from piggy banks to checks of impressive size flowed into our besieged command post at the Gaston Motel and our Atlanta headquarters.
One of the most gratifying
developments was the unprecedented show of unity that was displayed
by the national Negro community in support of our crusade. From
all over the country came Negro ministers, civil rights leaders,
entertainers, star athletes, and ordinary citizens,
ready to speak at our meetings or join us in jail. The NAACP Legal
Defense and Educational Fund came to our aid seven times both with
money and with resourceful legal talent. Many other organizations
and individuals contributed invaluable gifts of time, money, and
The signing of the agreement
was the climax of a long struggle for justice, freedom, and human
dignity. The millennium still ha not come, but Birmingham had made
a fresh, bold step toward equality.
Birmingham is by no means miraculously desegregated. There still resistance and violence. The last-ditch struggle of a segregation; governor still soils the pages of current events and it is still necessary for a harried President to invoke his highest powers so that a Negro child may go to school with a white child in Birmingham. But these fact (only serve to emphasize the truth that even the segregationists know: The system to which they have been committed lies on its deathbed The only imponderable is the question of how costly they will make the funeral.
I like to believe that
Birmingham will one day become a model Southern race relations.
I like to believe that the negative extremes Birmingham's past will
resolve into the positive and utopian extreme of her future; that
the sins of a dark yesterday will be redeemed in achievements of
a bright tomorrow. I have this hope because, once on a summer day,
a dream came true. The city of Birmingham discovered a conscience.
The Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr.